Tale of Two Breasts - A Cancer Story

In September of 2004 my doctor found a lump. After several ultrasounds and mammograms, the concerns outweighed my age enough to necessitate a biopsy. At 26 years old, I wasn't a likely candidate for a mammogram, let alone an open surgical biopsy.

The lump turned out to be many, but to my relief they were mostly simple fluid-filled cysts. However, it was because of those cysts that something of greater interest was discovered. The radiologist had seen several micro-calcifications that showed up as tiny white specks during my screenings.

In February, 2005, a fine wire localization biopsy was performed and a section was removed about the size of a stack of 6 toonies (a toonie is a Canadian two dollar coin). It was reviewed by the pathologist in Nanaimo and a diagnosis was unclear, so the slides were sent to a specialist at the BC Cancer Agency in Vancouver for consultation. According to his review, it was "a challenging case". A month after the procedure, although I hadn't actually seen the report, I was told that it was "not cancer", but we should continue screening every 6 months to make sure nothing changed.

My experience with the BC Cancer Agency; Vancouver Island Centre didn't transpire until one year later, once I was living in Victoria. I was in for a routine check up, and my new doctor requested my medical file from the previous clinic in Nanaimo. I had given him my version of the past 2 years' events, so he was a little surprised to read my pathology report from the year before stating that I had been diagnosed with Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS), among other things. He made a call on my behalf, and within hours I was contacted by someone at the Cancer Agency here in Victoria.

I met with a specialist there a few days later and we went over my surgical pathology report to try to decipher exactly what it meant. He spent 3 hours with me going over the diagnosis, translating and even creating diagrams to help me understand. He was very thorough and helped put my mind at ease with the diagnosis.

Depending on who you ask, or what reports you read, LCIS is not considered cancer, as its name suggests. It has been explained to me that "in situ" means that abnormal cancer cells are present, but have not spread past the boundaries of tissues where they initially developed. LCIS is considered a red flag to allow both doctor and patient to keep an eye on things.

Essentially no invasive cancer was discovered, however several "markers" were found. Markers are indications of a heightened risk of developing invasive breast cancer in the future. There are several risk factors associated with the disease which include; age, hormonal risk factors, personal or family history, lifestyle habits and antecedent intraductal hyperplasia. Although neither my age nor lifestyle provide a heightened risk, my family history and the diagnosis of both intraductal hyperplasia, and LCIS do increase my risk significantly.

The implication of a cancer diagnosis is somewhat overwhelming, but the important message is that thanks to screenings made available through funding, I know about the risks and I am in control of my health care options.

Cancer in its early stages is difficult to detect without the use of screening tests. Thanks to concern from my doctors and a little diligence on my part, I am able to stay on top of my health concerns.

The BC Cancer Foundation raises funds so people are able to receive the care they need at any of the BC Cancer Agencies across the province. Their mandate includes research, prevention & education, early detection & diagnosis, and treatment & care. Visit their website bccancerfoundation.

The Basics

First of all, let's try to understand what cancer is. Our body's cells have genes which regulate the growth of said cells. A normal, healthy cell grows at a reasonable rate and eventually it dies out and is replaced by a new one. A cancer cell has the ability to divide at a rapid pace and produces many cells which form a tumor. A benign tumor is simply one that is made up of cells that are virtually normal and is considered harmless for the most part. The ones that concern doctors are malignant tumors which are cancerous and can continue to multiply spreading throughout the body.

Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in the breast, usually in the lobules (milk producing glands) or ducts(tubes that carry milk to the nipple). I say usually because it can also develop in the connective tissues of the breast; which is the fatty part that surrounds the ducts and lobules.

Understanding the Lymphatic System is an important part to understanding how breast cancer can spread. Lymph nodes are an assembly of immune system cells which are connected by lymphatic vessels (small veins carrying lymph away from the breast. Lymph is a clear fluid that contains tissue fluid, waste products and immune system cells. If cancer cells enter the lymphatic vessels they can begin to grow in the lymph nodes. If this happens there is a good chance that they have also gotten into the bloodstream therefore spreading to other parts of the body. However, just because it has reached the lymph nodes.


Only 5 - 10% of cancers are hereditary (passed down from mother or father). The cancer itself is not inherited, but the gene that increases the risk factor for developing the cancer is inherited. The other 90 - 95% of cancers are sporadic.

So what does that mean? Well, our genes have many jobs and are in charge of telling our cells what to do and when to do it. If there is a mutation in those genes it causes the cells to do strange things. In the case of cancer, a mutated gene is telling cells to divide when they shouldn't be which causes tumors (as discussed in The Basics). For the most part, gene mutations usual happen later in life and are a result of natural aging or exposure to things like smoke, hormones, certain viruses or chemicals and dietary influences. The damage to our cells doesn't always lead to cancer because our cells are also equipped to repair damage and, as you may remember from grade 9 Science, we have 2 copies of each damage repairing gene (one from each parent). But if a mutation occurs in both copies of the gene, it can mean uncontrolled growth and can lead to cancer.

If a person is born with a mutation in one of the copies of a damage repairing gene pair, this means their risk for developing cancer is higher, known in the medical community as "genetic susceptibility". That is because they only have one good protective gene remaining and if it is damaged in the aging process or because of other environmental exposures, it can lead to the gene communicating to its cells to divide and multiply at a rapid rate. Hereditary cancer, therefore, usually develops earlier in life.

When a cancer develops in someone who has no family history or "genetic susceptibility" it is called "sporadic cancer". Since both copies of the protective gene which eventual mutate, start out in good condition, sporadic cancer usually develops later in life as it takes longer for both copies to become damaged.

The genes that are linked to breast cancer are called the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Genetic risk assessment and genetic counselling are available to help you discover your risk for breast and other forms of cancer. Genetic Risk assessment will tell you if you carry the BRCA1 or 2 gene mutation, but it won't tell you what your risk of developing breast cancer is. Genetic Counselling can help you to understand your risk for hereditary cancer by reviewing family history, discussing genetic testing and providing information and referrals to experts. Learn more about Genetic Counselling.

Symptoms or signs of breast cancer can range from lumps and swelling to changes in the skin. Non-cancerous cysts and infections often have the same symptoms. So how can you be sure?


Watch for the following symptoms:
*swelling of all or part of the breast
*skin irritation or dimpling
*breast pain
*nipple pain or the nipple turning inward
*redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple of breast skin
*nipple discharge other than breast milk
*a lump in the underarm area


Breast Self-Exam (BSE)

It is, in my humble opinion, the most important way to stay on top of your breast health - because it is something you can do on your own, and will get you familiar with your body. It is becoming quite a controversial subject. There was a study performed in Russia and China in 2008 of 400,000 women, which reported that BSE does not reduce the mortality rate and may cause more harm due to prompting unnecessary biopsies. It is my opinion that it's better to be safe than sorry. According to Breastcancer.org about 20% of breast cancers are found by physical exams rather than mammography.

Breast self-examination can be frustrating at first, because you don't know what to look for, and if you are like most women, there are many bumps and lumps in your breasts that are harmless. That is exactly why you should do this on a regular basis - every month. The best time to perform a BSE is a few days after your period when swelling has gone down. If you feel a lump don't panic, it is most likely not cancerous. But have it checked out by your doctor and then keep an eye on it to see if anything changes. You may want to keep a journal with notes on where and when you found something suspicious. If a change lasts longer than one cycle see your doctor to have it checked.


It is one of the most hated words in the English language for women! But I'm here to tell you that they've been given a bad rap and they aren't as horrible as they have been made out to be. They save lives after all! Doctors have been using mammography for the past 40 years to find and diagnose breast cancer. Mammograms have been shown to lower the risk of dying from breast cancer by 35% in women over 50 years old. Cancer Foundations world wide are now recommending that women over 40 be screened annually in order to find tumours before they are able to develop into invasive breast cancers. Early detection often means that the cancer can be removed without having to resort to a mastectomy (breast removal).

Of course, nothing is guaranteed and mammography alone can miss up to 20% of breast cancers because they simply aren't visible. Breast Self-Examination and other techniques such as ultrasounds or MRI's can also help detect problems.


There are several types of breast cancer and your treatment can differ based on what your diagnoses is. Some of the most common types of breast cancer are explained below:

DCIS - Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

This form of cancer is considered non-invasive because it stays inside the milk duct. It can grow within the duct, but will not spread into the rest of the breast tissue or to the lymph nodes. If caught early enough, DCIS can be removed with a lumpectomy, which is the removal of just the area of the breast containing the cancer. However if the cancer is large, or appears in more places throughout the breast, a mastectomy may be necessary. In most cases a lumpectomy is followed by radiation, but a mastectomy is only followed by radiation if lab tests show cancer near the edge of the removed tissue.

IDC - Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

This is the most common type of breast cancer, making up about 80% of all cases. It begins in the milk ducts and spreads to surrounding breast tissue. If left untreated it can spread to the lymph nodes and other areas of the body. Invasive cancers are given a stage to describe how far it has spread from its original location. It is based on the size of the tumor, whether or not it spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body. It can range from stages 1 to 4, where 1 is the earliest stage and 4 is the most advanced stage.

Your doctor will order a variety of tests to help determine which stage the cancer is at and to help determine the best treatment regime. Typically the patient would undergo surgery to remove the tumor and determine whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. This surgery can range from a lumpectomy (removal of only the lump or tumor) to a radical mastectomy (removal of the breast[s] and all the muscle under the breast[s]) or somewhere in between. Radiation may be recommended after the surgery to destroy and remaining invasive IDC cells. This has also been shown to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Chemotherapy is used to treat many higher stage cancers where the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Chemo (for short) is a medication (or combination of medicines) which enter the bloodstream to travel throughout the body interfering with rapidly dividing cells. For the most part they are the cancer cells, however there are also many healthy cells in your body which divide rapidly, such as those in your blood, mouth, intestinal tract, nose, nails, vagina and hair. Therefore the chemotherapy will also affect them causing symptoms ranging from hair loss to osteoporosis.

Your doctor may also recommend hormonal or other targeted therapies. As with any major medical diagnoses, there is follow up care that will be important to your continued health. Regular exams and tests will be required by your doctor.

LCIS - Lobular Carcinoma In Situ

Like DCIS, LCIS is not considered an invasive cancer as it does not spread into other areas within, or outside the breast. It is considered a marker for breast cancer, meaning that the person is at a higher risk for developing an invasive breast cancer in the future and should be monitored with regular mammography and ultra sounds. It is usually found in pre-menopausal women aged 40-50. It is difficult to estimate the risk of a patient with LCIS developing an invasive cancer because LCIS can go undetected, however it has been estimated that your risk increases from 12.5% for the average women, to 30-40% if diagnosed with LCIS.

LCIS is usually diagnosed when a biopsy is performed because of an abnormality in a mammogram. It does not require typical cancer treatment but should be carefully monitored to watch for early signs of invasive cancer. Talk to your doctor about medications and treatments which may help to reduce your breast cancer risk.

ILC - Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

This is the second most common type of breast cancer, making up about 10% of all cases. It begins in the lobules and spreads to surrounding breast tissue. . If left untreated it can spread to the lymph nodes and other areas of the body. ILC tends to be found in more than one area within the breast and is likely to affect both breasts. It is slow to spread outside the breast and tends to show up in the stomach, intestines and ovaries and has been known to eventually spread to the brain spinal cord tissues.

Treatments and care for ILC are similar to that of IDC and will vary depending on the stage of the cancer cells.

Some other, less common forms of breast cancer are Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Male Breast Cancer and Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer.


Once you have been diagnosed with a form of breast cancer, you have so many questions that you don't even know where to start. Most of them are likely about your health and what your options are. But there are many other factors in your life that are affected by breast cancer besides your health. Such as how will I pay for my care? What if I can't work? How will my family cope? How will my life change?

You will need more than just medical support, you need mental and spiritual support. Who do you talk to about your cancer concerns? The same people you talk to about your everyday concerns. You should have a support group that can help you through the difficult times. If you don't feel that you have anyone close to you that you can talk to, there are still options. Talk to a social worker or psychologist. It is important to get your thoughts and fears out in the open, and as long as you have a sympathetic ear, it will help you let go of some of those fears.

There are many support groups of other people with breast cancer and cancer survivors who can lend an ear, and can also benefit from talking with you. Ask you doctor about support groups in your area, or go the discussion boards on Breastcancer.org.

I found that being involved in fundraisers was also a great way to feel like I was in control, like I was dictating at least one part of how this disease affected my life. Last year I took part in the CIBC Run for the Cure in Victoria and raised almost $5,000 towards helping research in my area.

10 Important Steps To Beat Your Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States and it is the second most common cause of cancer death in men over age 55. The incidence of prostate cancer increases dramatically with each decade after 50. Fortunately, prostate cancer tends to be slow-growing compared to many other cancers - the majority of prostate cancers either do not spread or cause any significant harm for decades.

In general, men run a 1-in-6 chance of developing prostate cancer at some point in their lives. More than 230,000 new cases are expected this year in the United States, with about 27,000 deaths.

Most men will choose conventional treatment, often surgery or radiation, but there are life-changing potential side effects they need to be aware of, and discuss with their doctors.

Surgery, called a prostatectomy for the surgical removal of the prostate gland, means impotence for about 75% of the men choosing this path, according to a September 2004 study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Also, about 14% of the men were incontinent - could not control their bladder - five years after the operation.

With standard radiation therapy, the odds of impotence are about the same, 73%. The incontinence rate was much lower, just under 5%. There are new radiation therapies we discussed in the new guidebook How To Beat Your Prostate Cancer that have better outcomes.

No matter what conventional therapy a man chooses, if he does nothing else there is a 30% to 40% chance that his cancer or another cancer will recur. That's because his immune system was not strong enough to protect him from the first cancer, and if he does nothing it will be no stronger the next time it is needed. In addition, radiation and chemotherapy depress the immune system, leaving it weaker than it was before you got treatment. Finally, any cancerous cells that survive the radiation and chemotherapy treatments, or escape the surgeon's knife - and a few ALWAYS do - must be cleaned up by the immune system. Yet those cells that survived radiation or chemotherapy are, by definition, the strongest mutant cells. Cells that survive chemotherapy even have their own name: Multi-drug resistant. All of this means that if a man's cancer recurs, the cure rates the second time around are much, much lower - on the order of 5% survival.

So even if a man chooses conventional treatment, the information and advice on alternative treatments in How To Beat Your Prostate Cancer is very important for his recovery and continued good health.

Here are 5 of the 10 important steps covered in a Free Report by the authors of How To Beat Your Prostate Cancer that have worked for others:

1. Pick a doctor carefully. The numbers above on impotence and incontinence are pretty scary. Top surgeons who perform hundreds of these operations tend to have better numbers, and you should ALWAYS get the statistics in advance from any doctor before you let them treat you. Remember that if you are talking to a surgeon, he probably will want to operate. If your doctor is a radiation oncologist, don't be surprised if he pushes radiation. A clinical oncologist might counsel chemotherapy. Always consider the source. If you want to try alternative therapy first, since you really are not pressed for time, choose an alternative doctor or health care practitioner just as carefully.

2. Boost your immune system. If you're going to undergo conventional treatment, you need to boost your immune system to deal with the impact of chemotherapy and radiation. You also need to clean up the remaining cells after therapy, and then build back your immune system so cancer does not recur. If you are going to pursue an alternative treatment path while you have the time, boosting your immune system is Job #1. Several chapters in How To Beat Your Prostate Cancer show you how to do that.

3. Alkalize your internal environment. Cancer cells are highly acidic, and cancer can't live in an alkaline environment. You can test your pH level with test strips from the pharmacy or health food store. It should be over 7.0, preferably in the 7.2 to 7.4 range. If your internal body environment is acidic, it makes it much easier for cancer to grow and metastasize. Prostate cancer often metastasizes to the bones, making it much harder to beat.

4. Get more oxygen to your cells. Cancer hates oxygen. In the lab, when they are doing an experiment where they want cancerous cells to grow quickly, they simply turn down the oxygen. When they want to stabilize the experiment, they turn the oxygen back up. The same is true of your body.

5. Take vitamins and supplements. If you eat the Standard American Diet, you are eating fruits and vegetables grown on depleted soil, picked too early so they won't ripen and spoil while they're in the distribution chain, and then probably overcooked. Even if you are eating organic fruits and vegetables, grass-fed pastured meat and raw milk, you still can't get the massive amounts of vitamins and supplements you need to let your immune system overcome a cancerous tumor that has become established. You must take high-quality vitamins and minerals, digestive enzymes and specific anti-cancer supplements like those recommended in Chapter 7 of How To Beat Your Prostate Cancer.

Alternative Cancer Treatment

Prevention as an alternative cancer treatment

Since there is no fail-proof treatment available for most types of cancer (unless detected in very early stages), the best you can do is take preventive measures. In that sense, prevention can be called an alternative cancer treatment methodology. So, what all does this alternative cancer treatment methodology suggest.

Physical fitness as an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) methodology

Obesity is said to increase the risk of cancer. So, exercise or adequate physical activity can act as alternative cancer treatment (prevention) methodology. Just mark off some time from your schedule for daily exercise. A number of people think that exercise is synonymous to gymnasium. However, that is not the case. This alternative cancer treatment (prevention) methodology doesn't ask you to visit gym. You can just participate in simple activities like playing tennis or brisk walking etc.

Diet control is an effective alternative cancer treatment (prevention) methodology

Your diet should consist of all essential nutrients in correct proportions. This will not only act as an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) methodology but also help you in keeping healthy as such (thus evading other diseases/ problems too). As an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) methodology, diet control suggests you to reduce fat content in your food and to include bean and Soya products in your diet. It also suggests that you must refrain from smoking and limit alcoholic drinks to the minimum.

Sun protection as an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) technique

As we know it, UV radiations from sun can cause skin cancer. So, avoidance of direct sunlight can act as an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) methodology. Use of sun tan lotions that have SPV (Sun Protection Factor) of at least 15 is recommended as part of this alternative cancer treatment (prevention) technique.

Avoiding pollution - an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) technique

Some pollutants can cause cancer. So, you need to be on your guard against chemical agents/ fumes (especially if you live too close to an industrial area). . Avoiding pollution is surely an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) technique.

Go for early detection of cancer

Everyone dreads cancer. However, early detection of cancer is really an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) technique. Most cancer screening tests are quite easy to perform. Even self-screening is possible for some types of cancer. So, going for cancer screening can act as an alternative cancer treatment (prevention) technique and hence prevent threat to life that is caused by cancer.

Interrupting The Process Of Cancer - Part I Of II

In spite of the advancements made by medicine over the years, the treatment of cancer remains adrift, buffeted by political tides and conflicting approaches. It is a disease that has been hijacked by a very large and powerful pharmaceutical drug industry, an industry capable of altering the historical course of medicine.

Once receiving a diagnosis of cancer, the patient wears a price tag of approximately $300,000. Cancer is BIG business.

To put this ill-conceived power in perspective, consider the words of the novelist Upton Sinclair who once said of such danger, "It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it."

In 1913 the American Cancer Society came into existence under the guise of an "emergency organization, a temporary organization, seeking in its independent Crusade to obtain enough dollars to wage an unrelenting fight against cancer."

Apparently "enough dollars" was not the suitable criteria for success after all. The American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute have spent many billions of taxpayer and charity dollars promoting, for the most part, ineffective drugs while virtually ignoring strategies for prevention. For the utter lack of progress, one would question whether the cancer industry is aptly motivated to find a cure. Despite decades of false assurances, we are losing the winnable war on cancer. The fact of the matter is that we are no closer to controlling this disease. This year approximately 1,400,000 Americans will be diagnosed with cancer and 600,000 will die. If we had taken the advice of doctors several decades ago who researched and introduced natural methods for prevention and treatment of this disease, and if we had focused our attention on eliminating carcinogens from the food we eat, air we breathe, and water we drink, we would not be facing this great tragedy today. Vested interests have repeatedly blocked these strategies.


"You cannot poison your body into health with drugs, chemo or radiation. The holistic approach treats the whole animal, ignites the body's internal healing force and stimulates the body's natural abilities to heal itself. Health can only be achieved with healthful living." T.C. Fry

First, it is important to understand the nature of cancer if we are to take control of the disease. According to Dr. George C. Pack, a cancer specialist at Cornell Medical School, almost everyone has cancer cells present at times in their bodies.

If our immune system is working properly, these cells are killed or reabsorbed by our defense system before they begin to grow and threaten our health. Our immune system is a very sophisticated system and over time has developed a "seek and destroy" method for dealing with these cancerous cells. Today, it is necessary to consider why the immune system is failing us at an alarming rate. A reasonable person would question whether our approach is completely wrong for our lack of progress. (I would hazard to guess that we have been on the right track numerous times only to be derailed by the pharmaceutical drug industry and governmental agencies in their employ.)

Cancer occurs when our bodies are exposed to a factor or combination of factors that damage normal cells and make them start dividing uncontrollably. Frequent exposure to tens of thousands of synthetic chemicals, accumulating from the very moment we are born, has a very large part to do with the cancer epidemic we are now experiencing in the U.S. and around the world. You take this increase in our overall toxic load and top it off with an immune system weakened by a modern diet and you have a state conducive to growth for these cancerous cells.


"If I contracted cancer, I would never go to a standard cancer treatment centre. Cancer victims who live far from such centres have a chance." Professor Georges Mathé, French cancer specialist

The reality is that if you wait for the disease to manifest itself in symptoms you more than likely have had the disease for two to three years. Ultimately, there is no absolute cure for cancer, only prevention and remission. We need to interrupt the process of cancer and take steps to move away from an environment conducive to the formation of cancerous cells. Therefore, it is extremely important to find effective methods of circumventing disease onset. Perhaps the inability of the cancer industry to properly turn their attention to prevention is because a synthetic drug will never be of any use in this regard.

Interestingly enough, there are just a few fundamental concepts that can influence the internal environment, turning it away from disease and towards health. These concepts involve the alkaline/acid levels and oxygen levels in the cells. Just as we could not live without oxygen, research shows that cancer cannot exist in cells where there is enough oxygen or where the pH level is properly balanced. Unfortunately, all too often our cells are low in oxygen and therefore acidic.

Highly suspect as a trigger of this disease are carcinogens and toxins, however, these may be, in a sense, secondary causes of cancer. An underlying cause of all cancers may have been discovered over 50 years ago by the renowned scientist Otto Warburg, winner of two Nobel Prizes for discovering the clues to why cancer develops. Dr. Warburg's research supports his theory that cancer development appears to be connected to cellular oxygen levels.

Now here is where toxins come into play. One of the causes of poor oxygenation include a buildup of carcinogens and other toxins within and around cells which blocks and then damages the cellular oxygen respiration mechanism. This clumping of red blood cells ultimately slows down the bloodstream and restricts flow into capillaries which also causes poor oxygenation. The mere lack of proper building blocks for cell walls and essential fatty acids, restricts oxygen exchange.

The other aspect of dealing with cancer is supporting the immune system. After all, for most of one's life the immune system has successfully dealt with cancer cells. Usually it becomes worn out and ineffective and unable to deal with the cancer cells before cancer takes hold and thrives.

It is important to strengthen the immune system so that it can better fight cancer, especially if one is taking medical treatments that negatively affect the immune system as is the case with chemotherapy. Current cancer treatments seem to make no sense once you understand the basics of the disease. In fact, studies show that most methods of detecting and treating cancer INCREASE your overall cancer risk, including mammograms.

Copyright 2006 Paula Rothstein

Type of Cancer

Cancer is one of those words that everyone dreads. There are various types of cancer and any type of cancer is really bad news. All types of cancer are life threatening (this is what makes them so dreadful). Even with all that medical advancement we still don't have a complete cure for all types of cancer. However, there is continuous research going-on for finding better treatments for cancer and to increase our knowledge on cancer in general. Though there are treatments currently available for some types of cancer, these treatments work only if the cancer is discovered in early stages.

Types of cancer

Generally, cancer is named after the part of the body in which it originates. Most common types of cancer are breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Though, this might vary across geographies etc, these four types of cancer seem to be the more notorious ones. The other types of cancer include: cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, bone cancer, brain cancer, skin cancer, stomach cancer, bladder cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer and testicular cancer. Besides this, cancer is also classified as primary and secondary based on whether it originated in that body part itself or spread from another body part.

Diagnosis of various types of cancer

It's not just the treatment of various types of cancer that is difficult (or impossible) but also their detection (or diagnosis). In fact, correct and timely diagnosis is the first step towards treatment of any type of cancer. The earlier you are able to detect cancer, the more effective is its treatment.

Treatment of various types of cancer

Though the treatment of all types of cancers is not possible, some types of cancer can be treated if they are diagnosed early enough e.g. detection of malignancy when it has just started to develop. The treatment for cancer is carried out in many different ways. These range from surgery to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biologic therapies. Hormone therapies are also gaining popularity for treatment of some types of cancer. Transplantation of bone marrow and many other new procedures for treatment of cancer are being constantly tried and analysed in order to get a fail-proof treatment for cancer.

Research on diagnosis on various types of cancer

The huge number of deaths that are caused every year by various types of cancer has lead to a lot of focus being put into the research on diagnosis and treatment of all types of cancer. Meanwhile, we can just hope that there will soon be a complete cure available for the most common types of cancer (if not all types of cancer).

Uterus Cancer: How Dangerous is It?


Endometrial cancer is the most common type of uterus cancer. It is so termed as the cancerous cells abnormally develop in the endometrium lining. It is also known as the cancer of the uterus or uterine cancer.


To understand cancer, we must first know that this ailment begins in the human cells. The cells are the primary unit of life. Cells combine to form tissues. Tissues come together to form organs. Cancers are malignant tumors. Tumors are masses of extra tissues. Tumors are formed when unnecessary extra cells are formed in our body. Actually new cells (the basic unit of our life) are born as per the body requirement and after the old ones die. But the malignant or cancerous cells keep on forming and constitute tumors or growths. They also spread abnormally fast. Tumors can also be non-cancerous or benign.


Uterus cancer can spread (metastasize), to the surrounding nearby blood vessels or nerves. And, from one lymph node, uterus cancer can affect other lymph nodes. Even the bones, liver, and lungs can be affected. Doctors give the newly spread tumor the same name as the mother tumor has as their characteristics remain identical.


There is still no unanimity among the medical specialists as to the exact causes of uterus cancer or uterine cancer. Nonetheless, there is agreement among them that uterus cancer cannot spread from one person to another. In other words, uterus cancer is not contagious. Mentionably, though uterus cancer generally happens after menopause, yet it can take place as menopause starts.


There are different types of uterus cancer. You would be surprised to know that cancerous cells of the uterus at times spread to the lungs. This is not lung cancer but uterine cancer that has metastasized (spread). This 'distant' ailment is treated as uterus cancer. Another typical form of uterus cancer is uterine sarcoma. It develops in the myometrium (muscle). There is another uterine cancer that starts in the cervix region.


The most common symptom of uterus cancer is profuse bleeding from the vagina. Many have the misconception that such abnormal vaginal bleeding is symptom of menopause and do not pay adequate attention to it. This is wrong! Such vaginal bleeding can begin only as a watery flow having just a streak of blood. But slowly more and more blood flows along with it.


Immediately consult a gynecologist the moment you see any or some of the following symptoms: Pain in the pelvic portion; pain while urinating; pain during intercourse and/or abnormal vaginal discharge or bleeding. Of course, these signs can be due to factors other than those related to uterus cancer. Hence, seek expert's advice without delay.


The confusing fact is that many women having uterus cancer risk factors do not develop this ailment. On the other hand, there are umpteen cases of women not having the risk factors contracting uterus cancer. Nevertheless, the risk factors do help in the early diagnosing of uterus cancer. Here is an overview of the risk factors that may aggravate into uterus cancer.

Age factor: First, uterus cancer has been found to take place among women in the 50 plus age group.

Race: White-skinned women get uterus cancer more than, say the African-American women.

Endometrial hyperplasia: Second, many women after crossing 40 years suffer from endometrial hyperplasia. Though it is basically benign (not cancerous), yet it can sometimes develop into cancer. Endometrial hyperplasia happens due to the increase in cells uterus linings. The common signs of endometrial hyperplasia are bleeding in the post-menopause phase, bleeding after successive periods, and menstrual periods that are heavy. Physicians generally recommend progesterone (hormone treatment) or hysterectomy (uterus removal) to check endometrial hyperplasia from degenerating into cancer.

Colon cancer. Women suffering from colon or colorectal cancer that is inherited also may develop uterus cancer. Colon cancer affects the colon in the large intestine or/and the fag end portions of the rectum prior to the anus.

HRT: Third, women undergoing HRT (hormone replacement therapy) also have risk of contracting uterus cancer. HRT controls menopausal symptoms, prevents bone thinning (osteoporosis), and also reduces chances of stroke or heart ailments.

Prolonged use of hormone: Prolonged use of the female hormones estrogen sans progesterone can lead to uterus cancer. It is always advisable to combine the use of both primarily because progesterone acts as a potential uterus shield.

Over-exposure to estrogen: Women entering puberty early or reaching menopause late or those who have not borne any children remain exposed to estrogen for a long period. They too suffer a high risk.

Use of medicines having estrogen: One such commonly used medication is Tamoxifen. It is prescribed as a preventive measure against breast cancer. But long-time use of estrogen can lead to over-exposure to estrogen.

Obesity: The primary reason why obese women develop uterus cancer more than their thinner sisters is simple. Our body manufactures certain percentages of estrogen within the fatty tissues.

Diabetes BP: Since obesity is also linked with diabetes, the diabetic women may also have uterus cancer. Similar is the case with women having high blood pressure (BP).


The ideal diagnosis for uterus cancer can constitute one or a combination of the following tests. They are the biopsy, Transvaginal ultrasound, Pap test, and Pelvic exam.

Biopsy: In biopsy, a tissue sample is removed from the lining of the uterus. This is a simple process and is done in the doctor's clinic itself. However, in complex situations, the patient may have to undertake the D&C process. This D&C (dilation and curettage) operation is a day-long affair. The tissue is examined by a pathologist for the probable presence of various cancerous conditions like hyperplasia and cells. In the post-biopsy stage, the patient may experience cramps and also have bleeding from the vagina for some time.

For the patient's knowledge: The patient needs to clarify certain positions with the doctor prior to going in for biopsy. These are about (i) the biopsy type she may have to undertake and the reason(s) why she should go for the test; (ii) The approximate time biopsy would take; (iii) Would she have to be anaesthetized; (iv) Whether biopsy be painful? (v) The risks and after effects of biopsy; (vi) And, if in the event of cancer being detected what the steps she would have to take and from whom she would get the consultations.

Transvaginal ultrasound: In this test, sound waves of high frequency is aimed at the uterus via an instrument that is inserted within the vagina. The sound echo patterns make a picture. And, the doctor can have a clear idea of the actual state by examining this picture. But, transvaginal ultrasound becomes impossible if the endometrium is too thick. Then, the patient may have to go for a biopsy.

Pap test: In Pap test, cells are collected from the upper vagina and cervix portions. Pathological examination of the cells is done to find out if there are any cancerous or abnormal cells. The problem with Pap test is that it fails to identify abnormal cells within the uterus. Hence the doctors usually collect the cells via biopsy. Nonetheless, Pap test can readily detect the cervical cancerous cells.

Pelvic exam: The Pelvic exam checks the rectum, bladder, uterus, and vagina. The presence of any lumps or alterations in their sizes and shapes are clear indications of the likely presence of abnormal tumors or cancerous cells. The doctor checks the cervix and vagina via an instrument. This implement known as speculum is first inserted into the vagina.

Exercise & Prostate Cancer Risk

There is an increasing body of research evidence to suggest that many cases of cancer can be prevented through lifestyle and diet modifications. Indeed, even conservative estimates suggest that more than 60 percent of new cancer cases could be prevented simply by abstaining from unhealthy lifestyle and dietary habits. (More enthusiastic cancer prevention experts have suggested that 80 percent of cancer cases, or more, might be preventable with rigorous lifestyle and diet changes.) Given that, in the best case, modern cancer treatment results in the long-term survival of only about 60 percent of all cancer patients, and that the survival rate for many of the most lethal cancers still remains far more dismal, an ounce of cancer prevention is certainly worth much more than a pound of cancer cure.

As a practicing comprehensive Surgical Oncologist, I routinely treat patients with highly lethal cancers, many of which are, sadly, incurable by the time they are diagnosed. While not every case of cancer can be prevented through lifestyle and diet modification, many of the terrible, and ultimately fatal, cancer cases that I routinely see might have been prevented with reasonably moderate alterations in the way that people choose to live their daily lives.

Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer that occurs in men, and the second most common cause of cancer death in men. In 2009, an estimated 192,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed, and approximately 27,000 men will die of this disease. Prostate cancer currently afflicts 1 out of every 6 American men during their lifetimes, and accounts for 25 percent of all cancer diagnoses in men (similar, I might add, to the percentage of breast cancer cases among all cancer cases diagnosed in women). Most prostate cancers are stimulated to grow and spread by testosterone and other androgens produced by the testes, and by other tissues in the body.

The relationship between prostate cancer risk and exercise has not been entirely clear, thus far, as various clinical studies have produced contradictory findings. Some of these studies have suggested that high levels of daily physical activity may reduce the risk of prostate cancer, while other studies have not confirmed a link between prostate cancer risk and physical activity levels.

A new prospective public health study, just published in the British Journal of Cancer, adds further important evidence that increased levels of physical activity may indeed reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. In this newly published study, nearly 46,000 men between the ages of 45 and 70 years were prospectively followed between 1998 and 2007. All of these male volunteers completed extensive questionnaires regarding their daily levels of physical activities at 30 years of age and at 50 years of age, as well as at the time or their entry into this clinical study. These questionnaires specifically included questions regarding walking or bicycling; current waist, hip and height measurements; education level; cigarette smoking; alcohol consumption; diabetes; family history of prostate cancer; and other lifestyle factors. Six predefined activity levels for occupational activity (from "mostly sitting down" to "heavy manual labor"), and additional predefined categories for time spent on different activities, were specifically included in the questionnaire, such as walking or bicycling ("hardly ever" to "more than 90 min per day"), home or household work ("less than 1 hour per day" to "more than 8 hours per day"), inactive leisure time ("from 2 hours per day or less" to "5 hours per day or more"), and active leisure-time exercising ("from less than 1 hour per week" to "more than 5 hours per week"). The patient volunteers were also queried regarding the average number of hours per day they spent sleeping.

Importantly, the researchers conducting this study took the extra step of conducting 7-day physical activity evaluations to verify that the study's participants actually engaged in the levels of physically activity that they claimed on the questionnaires. (This additional validation step confirmed the accuracy of the questionnaire information supplied by the study's volunteers.) The incidence of prostate cancer, and the death rate associated with prostate cancer, among these 45,887 middle-aged and elderly men were then analyzed at the conclusion of this very large prospective epidemiological study.

When the men who engaged in physical activity at the highest levels were compared with those at the lowest levels, some very important differences in prostate cancer risk emerged. Overall, very high levels of physical activity were associated with a 16 percent reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer. Additionally, among the men who spent at least half of their work days being physically active, the risk of prostate cancer was 20 percent lower when compared to men who spent most of their work day sitting down. Specifically, and very importantly, there appeared to be a linear and progressive decrease in prostate cancer risk with each additional 30 minutes of walking or bicycling per day over the course of the adult lifetimes of these men (this linear relationship was noted within a range of 30 to 120 minutes of walking or bicycling per day). Additionally, the risk of developing advanced prostate cancer appeared to be further lessened by regular daily physical activity.

The results of this study mirror those of other high-quality cancer prevention studies for other types of cancer (including, most notably, breast cancer). While clinical research studies such as this one are prone to various forms of bias, and in particular, biases that arise from patients "self-reporting" their personal health and lifestyle information on study questionnaires, the authors of this study appear to have taken very significant and effective steps to reduce the risk of including such biases in the data that they collected from these nearly 46,000 men. Therefore, although a small degree of residual error cannot be completely excluded from the results of this impressive epidemiological study, its findings that progressively higher levels of daily physical activity (and, it must be stressed, throughout one's lifetime) are associated with a decreasing level of prostate cancer risk are very likely to be valid even in the presence of small errors in the study's data (if they exist).

Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of premature death in most societies. Cancer is the number two cause of premature death when including people of all ages, and the number one cause of premature death below the age of 80 in the United States. Regular exercise, including relatively moderate activities such as brisk walking or bicycling, have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, as well as, increasingly, the risk of developing or dying from multiple different types of cancer. Based upon the results of this well designed and well executed prospective clinical research study, it would appear that prostate cancer can be added to the list of life-threatening illnesses for which the risk can be decreased through regular and frequent physical activity (and both at work and at home).


Disclaimer: As always, my advice to readers is to seek the advice of your physician before making any significant changes in medications, diet, or level of physical activity

Dr. Wascher is an oncologic surgeon, a professor of surgery, a cancer researcher, an oncology consultant, and a widely published author

Copyright 2007 - 2009
Robert A. Wascher, MD, FACS
All rights reserved

Cancer Information - When Knowledge Counts!

If you are looking for first hand information on cancer, your search ends here with the internet. There are several sites that offer information on breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer as well as different other types of cancer, including information on its signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, and prognosis. The American Cancer Society at cancer.org has loads of cancer resources and links of interest that can guide you to other cancer information resources. In addition you will be able to find comprehensive guides about different types of cancer, treatment options, various cancer drugs, and learn how to get involved in groups promoting cancer awareness and education. You also have an option to make donations by purchasing books and other resources containing cancer information from the website too.

To find out more about ongoing research and current cancer information you can check the National Institute of Health's cancer research group, a good source that is located online at cancer.gov. This is an excellent site where one can find cancer statistics, such as the occurrence of various forms of cancer, plus information regarding ongoing clinical trials, results of previous research, how clinical trials are performed, and how to locate a clinical trial to take part in. You can also find an extensive online dictionary on this site with description for various cancer terms and treatments, as well as an in depth section on medications used in cancer treatments plus links to more cancer drug information. Other interesting sites worth trying out are oncolink.com sponsored by the University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, cancersociety.com, and the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service at cis.nci.nih.gov.

If you would like to learn about cancer information from more personal sources, for instance from people who have cancer, then you can either join a local cancer support group or an online chat forum. Views and experiences of people can be found posted on their own personal websites, and you can interact with these people via email too. Who knows, you may just have something in common, and this could be a great way to find out more about your situation and what to expect. You can even check with your primary care physician or gynecologist for information on various types of female concerns, including breast, uterine, ovarian, and cervical, cancers. For those looking for cancer information on a specific type, you can do a search on that alone that will enable you to focus on your results considerably. Hopefully, you or your loved ones will never hear the diagnosis of cancer, but if you do, there are tons of useful information and resources that are easily available. Knowledge is power, get it, and use it.

Diagnosed With Breast Cancer? Here Are Some Resources To Help!

There are more and more organisations and groups around the world who will offer support and advice to not just women but men as well who have been affected by breast cancer.

Many of these groups and organisations not only spend time counselling people but they hold many fund raising events and campaigns to help pay for further research into the disease.

In some cases some of these groups or organisations will offer treatment to those patients diagnosed with the disease who can not actually afford to pay for the treatment themselves.

Below is a list of the various organisations and groups that can be found in the USA which have been specifically set up to fight this disease and provide support to those who have been diagnosed with it.

One such group in the USA is the American Cancer Society (ACS) who are a community based health organisation and which helps to fight all the various types of cancers that now seem to affect the population.

They also spend vast amounts of their time not just focusing on treatment of cancer but also its prevention and how to reduce the suffering felt by the patients and their families and saving lives.

They also help with costs for carrying out further research and educating people on the disease and making the population more aware of its effects.

Another organisation is Cancer Care Incorporated who provide a telephone support service for all cancer issues, and this includes medical information, cancer terms and definitions, counselling, guidance on local services, free information material, as well as information on local support groups to the patients area as well as an abundance of educational programs on cancer matters.

Now we come to CRFA (Cancer Research Foundations of America) which is a national group and which focuses on the prevention of cancer both through educating people and scientific research.

It is also able to provide people with information on other forms of cancer as well as breast such as prostate, lung, colorectal, skin and cervical.

Then you could if you wish contact The Living Beyond Breast Cancer Foundation which has been set up and provides a helpline where you are able to obtain support after being diagnosed with the disease.

You will discover that the people at the other end of the phone talking to you will have previously been diagnosed with the disease and survived.

They are able to provide you with first hand information on the treatments offered, the way in which it is diagnosed and how to survive it.

But don't forget the people at the other end of the phone can only offer you emotional support and not actual medical advice, for that you will need to see your doctor who will then refer you to a specialist.

Then there is the Medicare Hotline which is another breast cancer foundation and this one can offer the patient information on mammography and the way it is used in helping to detect breast cancer during the early stages.

Also we have the NABCO (National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organisations) who can provide people with answers to the many questions that they will have relating to the disease and they can either call them or send them an email to obtain the information they require on breast cancer and the many issues relating to it.

If you would like to obtain a more individual response regarding a question you have in respect of the disease it may be a case of you contacting the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service, which can provide patients with answers to any specific question they may have relating to the disease.

Also a number of years ago a Foundation was set up called the Susan G Komen Breast Cancer Foundation which helps to fight breast cancer and are well known for organising lots of awareness programs as being a huge contributor in raising funds through various campaigns they have organised such as breast cancer walks.

This foundation also has a helpline where they have trained volunteers who can talk to individuals regarding the disease as they have suffered from it themselves.

The Susan G Komen Breast Cancer Foundation has been set up and is specifically committed to offering people with the latest information that is available concerning breast cancer and breast health to those that contact them.

Lastly we have the Y-ME National Breast Cancer Organisation which helps fight against both breast cancer and provides support to those suffering from the disease by providing them with a helpline that is operated by trained personnel only.

These people are volunteers but who have all survived breast cancer and are not only prepared but have the experience to answer the various types of questions that will be posed by the caller regarding breast cancer.

They can also provide emotional support to the men and women who have been affected by this disease.

Exploring Various Options in the Treatment of Cancer

The word "cancer" might sound like a death sentence to the patients and their loved ones. But if the disease is caught before it spreads rapidly and the right treatment started on time then patients can surely eliminate the cancer-causing cells for life. Here are some of the various options that can be explored in the treatment of cancer.

Different types of cancer

There are many ways by which cancer could strike within a patient's body. The treatment of cancer too will depend on the type of cancer, the age and physical condition of the patient and the stage at which the disease is discovered by doctors. Some types of cancers are given below

o Breast cancer
o Prostate cancer
o Stomach cancer
o Blood cancer or leukemia
o Lung cancer, etc

While each form of cancer requires a specialized approach, some of the options that are normally utilized are given below.


Most cancers such as breast cancer and stomach cancer require immediate surgery to stop the spread of cancer cells further into the body of the patient. The patient will require hospitalization during and after surgery even as other treatments including radiation and chemotherapy might be started to ensure total freedom from cancer cells. Surgery is widely used in the treatment of cancer but in some types of cancer such as brain cancer, the risks are quite high as the operation might negatively affect some functions of the patient.


With rapid advancement in drugs that can beat cancer and with side effects such as nausea being controlled to a large extent, chemotherapy is now the preferred choice in the treatment of cancer, especially if it is located in hard-to-reach areas or is advancing rapidly. Chemotherapy is usually a combination of several drugs that attack cancer cells and are either injected into the patient or delivered in pill form. Collateral damage is also caused to the patient as healthy cells are also destroyed in chemotherapy, although newer drugs cause less damage to the patient's body.


The patient can also be subjected to internal or external radiation to destroy cancer cells hiding within his or her body. Internal radiation is delivered intravenously or in the form of pills or even surgically implanted in the form of rods on the affected organ itself. External radiation is applied in the form of rays on the affected organ while lead barriers protect other parts of the patient's body. Radiation is usually applied in the treatment of cancer after a surgery so as to eliminate any remaining cancer cells.

Other options in the treatment of cancer

Doctors will also explore other options in the treatment of cancer such as immunotherapy, which involves activating the patient's natural immune system to stand up and fight the cancer, hormonal therapy to curb the growth of cancerous cells, bone marrow transplant to replace affected marrow with healthy ones, etc. Patients might also try herbal treatments or even acupuncture to get relief from pain although most doctors do not encourage alternative treatment of cancer as there is no conclusive evidence on their effectiveness.

The right option in the treatment of cancer can enable the doctor and patient to quickly stem the growth of cancer cells and destroy all remaining cells so as to lead a long and healthy life. Prompt detection and action along with regular follow-ups can enable the patient to remain disease-free for life.

Are Microrganisms Causing Certain Forms Of Cancer?

There has been something leading me into the direction of researching information on a possible link between microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) and their role in causing certain forms of cancer. Based on recent evidence linking microorganisms to not only diseases but to the possible causative agent of several types of cancer, I feel this article is credible for shedding light on this theory. Cancer kills millions of people every year and we need to find out as much information about this health problem as possible.

Unfortunately, it is fair to say that most healthcare physicians are either unaware of cancer microorganism research, ignore the findings or are resistant to the research on it. When certain diseases were initially identified as having a microbe as its cause, cancer didn't act like an infectious disease and therefore it was concluded that microbes weren't the causative. There were a few scientists who later found pleomorphic(capable of assuming different shapes) bacteria; these bacteria were simply dismissed as contaminants or as microbes that had secondarily infected cancerous growths. Also, at this time there was no single or consistent type of microbe found and animals experimentally infected with cancer microbes did not develop cancer. Thus for decades before the rise of virology and molecular biology, and a time before the revelation of mycoplasma forms of bacteria, the medical society concluded that bacteria were not involved as a cause of cancer in any way. As a result, this conclusion has stained medical thought about cancer to this day.

It has taken the medical community many years to finally discover the fact that microbes could even cause disease. There was a 200 hundred-year period where physicians knew about microbes, but didn't realize that they could actually cause disease. In essence for two centuries the dogma was that those tiny microbes could not possibly be a threat to a grown person. Within the medical community once something becomes a dogma, it is very difficult to change medical thinking. Infectious bacteria can usually be recognized in disease because they can be seen microscopically in tissue sections from disease states. On occasion special staining of tissue sections is necessary to make microbes more visible and more easily identifiable. As a side note, in cancerous tissue, the cancer microbe is most easily viewed with an acid-fast tissue stain.

In this era of modern technology and medical breakthroughs, one would think that it would be impossible for disease experts to overlook disease-causing bacteria. An incident took place among legionnaires in Philadelphia in July 1976. This incident was a new and deadly lung disease that struck two hundred twenty-two people in which thirty-four died. The cause of this lung disease remained a medical mystery for well over 5 months. Bacterial infection was ruled out when all tests were reported as negative. One astute microbiologist finally discovered bacteria. Joe McDade at the Leprosy Branch of the CDC, was able to detect unusual bacteria in guinea pigs experimentally infected with lung tissue from the dead legionnaires. A further modification of bacterial culture methods finally allowed the isolation of causative bacteria, now known as Legionella pneumophila.

Another example of dogma-defying research is provided by recent studies proving that ( Helicobacter pylori ) are a common cause of stomach ulcers, which can eventually lead to stomach cancer and lymphoma. Just a few years back, stomach ulcers were thought to be due to stress, lifestyle, or improper diet, and it was not uncommon to send ulcer patients to psychiatrists for analysis. For over a hundred years, physicians refused to believe that bacteria could cause ulcers because they thought bacteria couldn't live in an acidic environment of the stomach. In the early eighties a researcher, who was unable to convince his colleagues that bacteria could cause ulcers and gastritis. He actually proved his case by drinking a culture of H. pylori. After he became ill and admitted himself to the hospital where these bacteria were found to be associated with gastric disease. These bacteria were found only with a special staining technique and they were indeed found in the stomach lining. The CDC now claims that H.pylori causes more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and 80% of gastric ulcers. As a result, around two-thirds of the world's population is infected with these microbes. Upon further research gastric ulcers are the prerequisites to stomach cancers.

For some reason, the idea that a proposed cancer germ could have more than one form is a threat to doctors and some microbiologists. The cancer germ has been described as having a virus like and fungus like, as well as a mycoplasma like phase. Such a Life Cycle is deemed nonsense in a lot of the medical community. Several scientists studied the pleomorphic cancer microbe. The results of this research indicate that cancer microbes are best detected by special staining tissue testing. Microbiologists love to separate viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, and fungi, as distinct entities. In fact there is interplay between all of them. Viruses can infect certain forms of bacteria, but scientists cannot understand how microbes can change into virus-like, mycoplasma-like and fungus like infectious agents. The cancer microbe is related to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, it is helpful to compare the microbiology of cancer with what we know about the microbiology of mycobacteria and their production of various forms of clinical TB. Research has indicated that the same identical germs do not always cause TB.

As a result, there is no reason to expect all cancer-associated bacteria to be exactly the same germ. Furthermore, just as everyone who harbors H.pylori does not develop stomach ulcers, we should not expect all cancer microbes to produce cancer. Also it is not unreasonable to consider the fact that cancer microbes have the potential to produce disease states that are not considered cancer. Cancer microbes can be identified in various disease states. There are photomicrographs of cancer microbes in autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma, in AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma, in breast cancer, in lymphoma and Hodgkins disease, in a lung disease called interstitial pneumonitis, in sarcoidosis and even in skin cancer. Not everyone who becomes infected with TB germs develops clinical tuberculosis. Individuals can harbor the TB germ without ever becoming ill. The same is true for cancer microbes. Not everyone who carries these microbes develops cancer.

One researcher found the microbe to be ubliquitous, which means it is found various disease states and can also be found normally. The research also labeled the microbe a progenitor cryptocides, which means hidden killer. Most importantly, cancer microbes are significant because they can be identified in the cancerous tissue in various forms of cancer. Also a few of these microbes can be seen in normal tissue, but strikingly large numbers can be seen in the areas of the tumor. These same microbes can be found in pre-cancerous conditions, suggesting that these germs are present before the actual induction of cancer. Furthermore, when cancer is cured by radiation and chemotherapy, the microbe can still be found in the damaged, previously cancerous areas. One reason cancer cannot be cured is that we cannot stop the destruction caused by these hidden and unrecognized bacterial elements. The reason antibiotics don't work well in cancer is because the microbes (in the mycoplasma state) aren't susceptible to antibiotics.

For more information on cancer and other health related problems visit the website located in the resource box.


The information provided herein should not be construed as a health-care diagnosis, treatment regimen or any other prescribed health-care advice or instruction. The information is provided with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in the practice of medicine or any other health-care profession and does not enter into a health-care practitioner/ patient relationship with its readers. The publisher does not advise or recommend to its readers treatment or action with regard to matters relating to their health or well being other than to suggest that readers consult appropriate health-care professionals in such matters. No action should be taken based solely on the content of this publication. The information and opinions provided herein are believed to be accurate and sound at the time of this publication based on the best judgment available to the authors. However, readers who rely on information in this publication to replace the advice of health-care professionals, or who fail to consult with health-care professionals assume all risks of such conduct. The publisher isn't responsible for errors or omissions. The Food and Drug Administration have not evaluated these statements. These products aren't intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Health Supplements are Increasingly Involved With Cancer Natural Treatment and Prevention

Health supplements for preventing cancer and natural cancer treatment

There is no known single magic cure for cancer so the best advice is to do everything you possibly can to prevent cancer in the first place.

Supplementing with all 90 essential nutrients is an excellent cancer natural treatment and will ensure that your immune system is supported and your body is maintained in optimal health. For extra protection against cancer the following is a list of health supplements you should consider:


Selenium is the king of all antioxidants and is reported to be one of the most powerful antioxidant minerals in the fight against cancer, according to Dr Gerhard Schrauzer, world authority on trace mineral research and nutrition. It is an essential cancer natural treatment.

An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association backs up this finding and also reports the benefits of selenium in lowering the incidence of a number of types of cancers. Also new evidence suggests that increasing levels of selenium in the diet can protect also against damaging rays from the sun.

Recently the US FDA upheld a claim by the nutritional company American Longevity to allow the health claim that selenium may reduce the risk of certain cancers and that selenium may produce anti-carcinogenic effects in the body.

A good Selenium antioxidant supplement should be the top of your list for a cancer natural treatment.


Lycopene is a recently discovered natural fat soluble pigment found in plants that can function in cancer natural treatment and prevention. The major food sources of lycopene are raw red or pink grapefruit, raw watermelon, and raw and processed food products containing tomatoes.
Recently (November 2005) the U.S. FDA upheld a health claim that Tomatoes and tomato-based products containing Lycopene may prevent certain forms of cancer. To read more about this you could go to the FDA website.

Antioxidant Vitamins

Significant and extensive research has been carried out on antioxidant vitamins such as Vitamin A and Vitamin C. The US FDA has approved the health claim, that the consumption of antioxidant vitamins may reduce the risk of certain kinds of cancer.

The best form of vitamin supplements is in liquid form - anyone suffering cancer or recovering from treatment may find absorption of food quite difficult and in these circumstances, liquids will always work best.

Green Tea

Green tea has been linked for some time to strong, anti-cancer effects. It is known that the tea's anti-oxidants properties could fight harmful key molecules that cause cancer. [The Japanese have one of the lowest incidences of cancer in the world and much research is underway to further show how green tea can be used as a natural cancer treatment.]
A great deal of scientific evidence suggests that consumption of green tea and green tea extract may reduce the risk of gastric cancer and certain forms of cancer.

While the Japanese seem to like Green Tea, for many of us it is a little 'hard to swallow'. In this case, a supplement containing Green Tea may be of enormous benefit.


Consumption of fiber may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and is an excellent and easily consumed cancer natural treatment. Gastrointestinal cancers are the second leading cause of death among all cancer patients.
There are hundreds of reliable and competent scientific studies to suggest that consumption of about 25 - 30 grams daily of dietary fiber will reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.

Most people don't consume nearly enough fiber and that's why fiber supplements should be added so that you get the adequate protection.

Shark Cartilage

Shark cartilage is another natural supplement that can help stop the formation of new cancer growths and is often contained in good quality multi-mineral and multi-vitamin complexes.

According to Naturopath and health and longevity expert, Dr Joel Wallach, shark cartilage and shark liver oil have substances that stop the formation of capillaries that feed cancer cells when they spread.

Although this is not accepted as a cancer natural treatment by conventional oncologists, Dr Wallach points out that Harvard and Yale Medical Schools have 25 years of research proving this to be the case. Dr Wallach recommends using shark cartilage at 70 grams per day if you have cancer.

Folic Acid

Folic acid may reduce the risk of breast cancer, can help prevent the horrible birth defect called spina bifida and may also help prevent a deadly childhood cancer, called neuroblastoma, in which the child is born with tumor cells, according to Canadian researchers.
It's been known for some time that women intending to become pregnant should take folic acid supplements and this research gives women even more reason to take them.

Eating soy may stop prostate cancer. One of the main molecules (called an isoflavone) found abundantly in soy beans stops the male hormone which stimulates prostate growth. Several studies have suggested that eating soy reduces the risk of prostate cancer and a great deal of research is underway on the benefits of soy in reducing the risk of other types of cancers including breast and colon.

Diet and Lifestyle . . . for Cancer Natural Treatment

o In terms of diet for both natural prevention and treatment of cancer, you should limit your diet to fresh food, organic if possible - nothing processed.

Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables which are high in antioxidants such as beta-carotene (vitamin A), and vitamin C and E. Tomatoes are particularly good as a cancer natural treatment food due to the lycopene they contain

o Cruciferous vegetables have excellent cancer-fighting properties. Research suggests that cruciferous vegetables contain phyto-chemicals which stimulate our bodies to break down potential carcinogens and work by preventing the transformation of normal health cells in to cancerous cells.
Cruciferous vegetables are linked to lower cancer risk (prostate, bladder, colon, liver, lung) and include: broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, kale

o Avoid fried foods, margarines, heated oils, burned animal fat and any other burned food (vegetable oil when heated and burned animal fat are basically carcinogenic).

o No alcohol and no cigarettes and no carbonated drinks. Research indicates that high acidity in your system provides a fertile ground for cancer cells to grow - we should strive to maintain an alkaline system.

o Drink eight glasses of water a day. Detoxify your system monthly by doing a liver flush.

o Protect yourself from strong sunlight

o Stay in tune with your body - monitor anything unusual - e.g. unusual lumps, ulcers, bleeding, extended diarrhoea, pain, change in urination or bowel habit, or moles that change in shape, colour, size. All of these factors can help prevent cancer.

Cancer and Its Causes, Types, and Warning Signs

There are over 200 diseases that can be called cancer. They have different causes, happen in different tissues, develop in different ways and for different reasons, and demand a variety of treatments. They all have one fatal element in common. In every case normal cells have gone wild and lost their normal growth and development.

The 3 classifications of cancer:

Cancer is classified in 3 stages. The cancer in the epithelial tissue (covering or lining of tissue) are called carcinomas. The 2nd class of malignant tumors is the sarcomas. They originate in connective tissue such as bone and muscles. The 3rd class of cancer is leukemia and the lymphomas. They are diseases of the blood forming organs and the lymphatic system. They are not tumors and spread in a different way.

Stages of cancer:

Initial stages of cancer may start with just one or a few cells in the body that undergo a change and become malignant or cancerous. The cells divide and reproduce themselves. Most cancer arises on the surface of tissue such as skin, uterus lining, mouth, stomach, bowel, bladder, bronchial tube in the lungs, or inside a duct in the breast or prostate gland. The cancer eventually grows from a microscopic clump to a visible mass. It then invades underlying tissue. As long as cells remain in one mass, the cancer is localized.

Later stages of cancer start in a process called metastasis where some of the cancer cells split off and go into the lymph channels or bloodstream to other parts of the body. If the disease is not arrested it will rapidly invade other parts of the body. Death is usually a more certain result then. Some people respond to radiation therapy and some do not. About one half of the known types of cancer are incurable at almost any stage. Of all or any cancer it is imperative to diagnose and treat it as soon as possible.

Causes of cancer:

Cancer can be caused by factors in our environment. These factors include a large number of chemical agents such as tobacco, tobacco smoke, asbestos fibers, and other occupational hazards. Other causes are X Ray radiation, nuclear bombs, sunlight, injury or repeated irritation, metal or plastic implants, flaws in the body's immune system, genetic mistakes, and some scientists believe viruses also.

Major types of cancer:

- Lung Cancer - Kills more Americans than any other cancer.
- Colon Rectum Cancer - The 2nd leading cause of death in the United States.
- Skin cancer - The largest single source of malignancy in the United States.
- Oral Cancer - Strikes and estimated 24,000 people a year.
- Stomach Cancer - One of the most frequently diagnosed types of cancer in the United States.
- Bladder Cancer - Arises progressively with age & more common in men than women.
- Prostate Cancer - One of the most common cancers among men and 2nd only to lung cancer as lethal to men.
- Kidney Cancer - More likely to occur in young children or adults over age 40.
- Pancreatic Cancer - Accounts for 5% of all cancer deaths. Affects men and diabetics more often.Usually occurs after age 40.
- Liver Cancer - The result of metastasis from other parts of the body. Affects more men than women. Usually occurs after age 40.
- Brain Cancer - The result of metastasis from other body organs. It affects more children than adults.
- Larynx Cancer - Affects 8 times as many men as women. Usually occurs around age 60.
- Thyroid Cancer - It is relatively uncommon. The death rate is about 1% per every 200,000 people.
- Hodgkin's Disease (lymphoma Cancer) - Affects mostly young adults, but can appear at any age. Affects more men than women.
- Leukemia- Especially lethal to children under the age of 15. Acute leukemia occurs at any age. Chronic leukemia usually doesn't happen before age 40.
- Myelomas- Originate in bone marrow. Affects more men than women. Seldom found under the age of 40. Usually occurs around age 65.

Cancer's 7 Warning Signs:

- Change in bowel or bladder habits
- A sore that does not heal.
- Unusual bleeding or discharge.
- Thickening or lump in breasts or elsewhere.
- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing.
- Obvious change in wart or mole.
- Nagging cough or hoarseness.

If you have any warning signs you should see your doctor immediately. The sooner cancer is diagnosed, the better your survival rate is. Remember if you put off going to your doctor because you are afraid he may find cancer, by the time you do go it could be too late. So please don't take chances with your health or your life.

Top 10 Cancer News of 2010

10. Jane Fonda Was diagnosed with Breast Cancer

Actress Jane Fonda discovered she had a small tumor in her breast during a routine checkup. She underwent a procedure to remove the cancer. The cancer turned out to be non-invasive and she is currently cancer free.

9. Stem Cell for Brain Cancer

Jenn Vonckx became the first human being to have stem cells injected into her brain to try to cure her brain cancer. Neural stem cells with a special enzyme are injected into the brain. The stem cells seek out and attach themselves to the tumors. The patient then takes a pill containing a non-toxic drug that enters the brain. When the drug interacts with the enzyme in the stem cells, it instantaneously creates an active chemotherapy drug. The hope is that chemo will kill the tumors and leave healthy brain tissue alone.

8. Elizabeth Edwards Died of Breast Cancer

Elizabeth Edwards was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2004. The cancer returned in 2007 and she died on December 7, 2010. She was separated from her husband, John Edwards, who was the former U.S. Senator from North Carolina, the 2004 United States Democratic vice-presidential nominee, and one-time presidential hopeful.

7. Hormone Therapy Links to Breast Cancer

Study shows a direct link between reduced hormone therapy and declines in breast cancer. Women taking a combination of progestin and estrogen face a higher risk of breast cancer and other potential health hazards. Postmenopausal women are strongly advised to refrain from long-term hormone therapy or to use the lowest dose possible for the shortest time to relieve hot flashes and night sweats.

6. Women Faked Cancer

Two Ontario women faked terminal cancer and collected donations to help fight deadly cancers they never had. Ashley Kirilow fraud breast cancer and Jessica Leeder pretended having stomach and lung cancer. They obtained thousands of dollars from sympathetic donors to fund their cancer treatments.

5. FDA Discourage People from Smoking

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced new measures to discourage people from smoking. Terrified graphic images, including a mother blowing cigarette smoke into the face of her baby, a man suffering a heart attack, image of lungs and mouth damaged by smoking etc, are going to post on cigarette packs.

4. FDA Approves Provenge for Prostate Cancer Treatment

Provenge is the first-ever cancer therapeutic vaccine approved by FDA. It is a breakthrough treatment that uses a patient's own antigen-presenting cells to stimulate the body's immune system against prostate cancer.

3. Michael Douglass Was Diagnosed with Throat Cancer

On August 16, 2010, Actor Michael Douglass announced that he was suffering advanced throat cancer. He underwent chemotherapy and radiation treatment. His prognosis is good and he has fair chance of beating the disease.

2. FDA Revokes Approval of Avastin for Treatment of Breast Cancer

Avastin was approved for breast cancer in 2008 under a fast-track process to make promising the drug available, subject to further studies. Follow-up studies indicated that Avastin did not prolong life of breast cancer patients and FDA thus moved toward revoking approval of Avastin as a treatment for breast cancer. This decision does not affect the use of Avastin against other types of cancer.

1. CT Scans Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

Annual CT scans of current and former heavy smokers reduce their risk of death from lung cancer by 20%. The findings represent a significant advance in cancer detection that could potentially save thousands of lives annually. Lung cancer will claim about 157,000 lives a year in US, more than the deaths from colorectal, breast, pancreatic and prostate cancers combined. Most lung cancer patients discover their disease too late for treatment, and 85 percent die from it.

Treating Cervical Cancers

Cervical cancer, to some people, might not be a very common type of cancer, but unfortunately, it is no less dangerous. This type of cancer ranks second only after breast cancer in the number of deaths recorded globally, annually in women between the ages of 35 and 55. Though its prevalence varies from country to country, depending on, sexual activity; although this has not been medically proved, an estimated 300,000 women have different stages of cervical cancer globally.

The cause of cervical cancer is much less complicated when compared to breast cancer and by undergoing regular Pap smear screening, it is often easy to detect the cancer in its very early stages, when treatment will be more effective and less invasive. The most common cause of cervical cancer has been shown to be the human Papilloma virus (HPV) which is transmitted through sexual intercourse. This virus could induce lesions in the cells of the cervix that may progress into cancer. However, Pap smear screening can efficiently detect the earliest signs of pre-cancer changes in these cells.

Unfortunately, despite the simplicity of this cancer type, most women do not notice it until the later stages when the cancer has spread throughout the cervix and at times, to nearby organs. This could be due to the fact that the cancerous changes in the cervical cells span a long period of time and often without symptoms. While this is good on one hand, because it allows you to treat effectively the condition at the pre-cancerous stages, it is also bad, on the other hand, because it stays in the body over a very long period of time, without a form of sign/warning, wreaking havoc on the cells of the cervix and making treatment very difficult when it is finally discovered.

So, prevention and early detection very important with cervical cancer. Some medical reports say there is now a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. The vaccine is said to come in three shots and when taken in series, it is believed to be totally capable of preventing cervical cancer by raising the body's immunity against the HPV. However, the vaccine must be taken before girls become sexually active for it to work optimally. You and I know that the best form of treatment is prevention, if you have daughters, sisters or friends that are still under sexual age, helping them get this vaccine would be the best help you can render to them. Ask your medical practitioners for more information about the vaccine.

In the early stages of development cervical cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy or radiation or sometimes, a combination of the two. Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs that enter the bloodstream. These contain chemical substances that can locate and destroy cancerous cells, without harming the normal cells of the body. Though these drugs come with some adverse effects, but the body can get over these after treatment has been completed. Radiation involves the use of powerful electromagnetic waves to shrink the tumor, killing the cancerous cells in the process. During the process, other organs of the body are protected from the radiation.

However, in advanced stages of cervical cancer, surgery is usually the only alternative. Depending on how far the cancer has spread, treatment may require partial removal of the cervix and uterus, known as partial hysterectomy. This spare the ovaries and other parts of the female genitalia.

If the spread of the cancer has reached several parts of the cervix and uterus, radical trachelectomy might be the treatment alternative. This involves removal of the cervix and the lower part of the uterus with several lymph nodes in the pelvis that might have been infected. This treatment option is intended to preserve fertility.

However, in the worst cases of cervical cancer where the cancer has spread outside the uterus, radical hysterectomy is the only option. This involves removing the cervix and uterus completely, the ovaries, part of the vagina and lymph nodes in the region. This is a very radical treatment and often the last alternative when the cancer has got out of hand. Because of the hormonal value of the ovaries, removal of the ovaries often has serious health implications for the woman. Paying attention to your body, especially the cervix, regular Pap smear testing and a healthy lifestyle is all you need to ensure that you never suffer such a consequence.

Prostate Cancer Preventers

One of the forms of cancer of most concern to men is prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, after skin cancer, and is the third leading cause of cancer death in men, after colorectal cancer and lung cancer. One in six men will get prostate cancer in his lifetime and over 200,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year.

Research has shown that there are several natural ways to prevent prostate cancer. One particular study reported by the UK Tea Council outlined several ways that men can protect their prostate health by making changes to their diets. Some of the most important changes you can make to prevent prostate cancer include the following:

o Lower your fat intake - Research has shown a reduced risk in prostate cancer in men who have a low fat diet. It's particularly important to lower your saturated fat and eliminate trans fats from your diet. Saturated fat is found in red meats, butter and high fat dairy products. Trans fats are artificial fats and are actually more dangerous than any other, because the body is unable to properly process it.

o Increase your intake of lycopene - Lycopene, a powerful anti-oxidant found in tomatoes has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing prostate cancer. Many doctors recommend that you get your lycopene intake from tomato sauce, because it is a more concentrated form of lycopene than a simple tomato.

o Add a vitamin E supplement - Vitamin E also has been shown to have a cancer preventing effect in some men. A simple supplement once a day may decrease your prostate risk.

o Add a selenium supplement - Another mineral supplement, selenium, has also been shown to be a cancer preventative.

o Add a calcium and vitamin D supplement - Vitamin D has also been shown to have a cancer preventing effect, but it requires an adequate amount of calcium in order to work effectively. So, when you add one supplement, add the other.

o Eat soy protein - Obtaining some of your dietary protein from soy protein sources can lower your risk of prostate and other cancers. Try soy milk and tofu in place of some meat to reduce fat and increase soy protein. Soy protein has been shown to have an effect even when prostate cancer has already been diagnosed. It appears to slow or inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells.

o Drink green tea - Green tea has been shown in many studies to prevent several forms of cancer, including prostate cancer. Green tea is a powerful source of anti-oxidants, which can prevent free radicals from damaging our cells, leading to cancer, aging and other diseases. However, green tea has other benefits when it comes to prostate cancer.

Green tea has been shown to causes apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Apoptosis is the systematic killing off of cells. It happens in many circumstances in the body, ensuring that only healthy, vital cells survive. However, rarely have we seen substances that can generate apoptosis in the body for the purposes of killing off abnormal cell growth like cancer cells, or abnormal cells that may grow into cancer.

Improving your diet and adding supplements is a simple way to prevent to cancer and many other diseases. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is an important key to health. Fruits and vegetables contain anti-oxidants, which are extremely important to protecting health.

Anti-oxidants combat free radicals created in our bodies as a by-product of converting food to energy. Free radicals damage our cells and DNA, causing premature aging and disease unless they are regularly neutralized by anti-oxidants. Fresh fruits and vegetables are powerful sources of anti-oxidants as is green tea, dark chocolate and red wine. So, by adding these products to your regular diet, you can help ensure that you live a long and healthy life, avoiding many types of disease like heart disease and cancer.

To date, much of the research on preventing cancer naturally has been performed on mice and in laboratory controlled studies. So, it's clear that we need to perform more tests on humans in order to truly determine the benefits of all these dietary changes and supplements in the fight against prostate cancer. However, we do know that all the changes mentioned here are generally healthy, so we can feel good about making them even if they don't significantly lower our cancer risk.

The rates of prostate cancer have started to decline over the last 10 years. In addition, the mortality rate has declined. Today, while one in six men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime; only 1 in 34 will die from it. With emphasis on natural preventative measures, perhaps we can eradicate this form of cancer, eliminating one of the most common and significant male health problems.

Who Else Wants to Learn About Ovarian Cancer

It is a frightening fact that somewhere around 1.5 percent of all women will develop ovarian cancer during their life. Although it is not as common as breast cancer, it is still considered to be the most serious and potentially fatal of  all of the gynecological cancers. Unfortunately this type of cancer is usually in advanced stages before it is diagnosed and this makes treatment difficult. Since the ovaries are not easily examined and the warning signs are not clear, it is common for a late diagnosis. Because there is a lack of screening tests, it is essential to be familiar with the early symptoms and understand the possible risk factors.

The ovaries are a part of the female reproductive system and they are located on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. There are two types of tumors that can affect the ovaries, benign or malignant. If the tumor is benign, it is not non-cancerous or non-malignant and therefore, it does not spread to any other parts of the body. A cancerous or malignant tumor will often spread (metastasizes), creating secondary cancerous tumors.

Ovarian cancer is definitely malignant and can occur in one or both of the ovaries.

Epithelial ovarian cancer mainly affects postmenopausal women and grows in the surface of the ovary. It is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for around 90 percent of the ovarian cancers. A borderline tumor is another kind of epithelial tumor. It grows much slower than its regular counterpart. These can normally be surgically removed, even if there are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Germ cell is a very rare form of ovarian cancer. It begins in the cells that develop into eggs. Sex-chord stromal cell ovarian cancer affects the ovary cells that are responsible for female hormones.

The actual cause of ovarian cancer is not known but there are certain risk factors that research has identified. Although by actually having any of these risk factors may increase your chances of ovarian cancer, it does not guarantee that you will get the disease. By having knowledge of these risk factors, it can prove helpful. If you are the slightest bit concerned that you may have any of the risk factors, it is imperative to see your doctor.

Some of the common risk factors of ovarian cancer include:

-Most ovarian cancers affect women over 40.
-Caucasian women have higher rates.
-Women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.

If you have any family history of any breast, endometrial, colon cancer or ovarian cancer, you may have a higher risk of getting ovarian cancer. Women who have had fertility drugs may be at a higher risk although infertility itself is a risk factor so this cannot be taken as a clear indication. The use of estrogen only HRT (post hysterectomy) has been identified as a possible risk factor for ovarian cancer, particularly if you have been on this therapy for over ten years. Obesity is a risk factor associated with ovarian cancer, as is a diet that is high in fat.

Can the Risks of ovarian cancer be Reduced?

Unfortunately, at the present time, no known procedures exist to prevent or detect early ovarian cancer but there are ways to reduce the risks. Research has found that using oral contraceptives can cut the risk of ovarian cancer if taken for a period of five years during your life. Breastfeeding delays ovulation after childbirth and therefore decreases your risk of ovarian cancer. A high fat diet has been identified as a risk factor in ovarian cancer. Tubal ligation or hysterectomy both reduces the risk of ovarian cancer. People with a strong family history of ovarian cancer may opt to speak to a genetic counselor. You may be referred to a gynecological oncologist to consider ways to reduce your risk.

There are no screening tests currently available for ovarian cancer; it is recommended that you have a regular pelvic and vaginal exam to see if there are any changes in your ovaries. It is also vital that you consult your healthcare specialist if you notice any possible signs of this illness. Many of the symptoms of ovarian cancer closely resemble other medical conditions, making diagnosis of ovarian cancer difficult.

In the event you experience any of the associated symptoms and they are unusual for you, especially if they persist for more than a week, you must see your doctor without delay.

Some of the most common symptoms of ovarian cancer may include: Stomach discomfort of pain in the pelvic area, persistent nausea, feeling constantly bloated, unexplained weight gain, loss of appetite or unexplained weight loss, bowel changes, frequency or urgency in urination, lethargy, pain during intercourse and unexplained vaginal bleeding.

If your doctor is suspicious of ovarian cancer, he/she will refer you to an oncologist, specializing in gynecology, who will order tests some or all of the following: An internal pelvic examination, Blood tests, Chest and stomach x-rays, a barium enema to rule out bowel problems and Ultrasound scans.

If the test results indicate there is evidence of ovarian cancer, you will be advised to have surgery to confirm the diagnosis, since none of the above mentioned tests are 100 % accurate. If the surgeon finds ovarian cancer, he/she will normally remove the cancer and the ovaries and check to determine if the cancer has spread. Before the surgery, it is important that you understand what will be done, depending on the findings and to learn all you can about your illness and the anticipated results before the operation.